Acne overview and Definition

Acne occurs when the pore of the skin become clogged ,inflamed and sometimes infected.The clogged pores can result in blackheads ,whiteheads and pimples.

Acne starts in the skins sebaceous glands.These glands secrete an oily substance called sebum.The sebum  normally travels through a tiny hair follicle from the gland tot the skins surface.sometimes, the sebum becomes trapped mixing with dead skin cells and bacteria.This causes clogged pores called comedons which are blackheads that reaches the skin surfaces.whiteheads are comedones that stay beneath the surface.

The most common area for the occurrence of acne includes face, forehead, chest, shoulders and upper back.


It is estimated that 80%of people aged between 11-30 will have atleast a mild form of acne.It is more common among the people of puberty age.

Routes of Transmission

Using the inanimate objects such as towel, comb,kerchiefs and skin to skin contact of already acne prone patient might leads/provoke the disease.

Clinical signs & symptoms

  • Pimples
  • Large solid painful limps under the skin
  • Itchiness

Differential Diagnosis

  • It is based on the history and physical examination of the patient.
  • Common areas include the anatomical part which has higher concentration of sebaceous glands such as face, back,neck,chest,upper arms.
  • Visualization of the inflammation or pustules.


The prognosis of most cases of the acne is excellent.The goal in all acne treament is the prevention of scarring.Non inflammatory acne heals without scarring but inflammatory acne leaves with scarring.Acne of any severity usually subsides with age group of mid 20 s.


  1. Prevention of the Wash twice a day and after sweatingPerspiration, especially when wearing a hat or helmet, can make acne worse, so wash your skin as soon as possible after sweating.

  2. Use your fingertips to apply a gentle, non-abrasive cleanserUsing a washcloth, mesh sponge, or anything else can irritate the skin.

  3. Be gentle with your skinUse gentle products, such as those that are alcohol-free. Do not use products that irritate your skin, which may include astringents, toners and exfoliants. Dry, red skin makes acne appear worse.

  4. Scrubbing your skin can make acne worseAvoid the temptation to scrub your skin.

  5. Rinse with lukewarm water

  6.  If you have oily hair, shampoo daily.

  7. Let your skin heal naturally.dont pick or squeeze your acne as it might leads to peeling of the skin and formation of the scars.

  8. Stay out from sun and tanning beds.

  9. Using tanning beds  increases the risk for melanoma the deadlist form of skin cancer by 75%.


Davidson's principle and practice of Gereral medicine-22nd edition

Harison manual of general medicine