Anaemia overview and Definition

Anaemia is termed as the reduced RBC and haemoglobulin levels.


An iron deficiency anemia affects 8.8% of the population world wide.It is slighltly more common among females than males.


    Anaemia due to increased blood loss

   Post haemorshagic anemia and chronic blood loss

B.Anaemia due to impaired red cell production:

     Iron deficient anaemia-it is caused due to defect in haem synthesis

     Thalaessaemia-it is caused dur to defect in globin synthesis.

     Vitamin B12 deficiency(Pernicious anaemia) and megaloblastic aneamia

     Aplastic anaemia

     Congenital anaemia-sideroblastic anaemia(erythrocytes and normoblast which contains iron in their cytoplasm ,congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia.

C.Morphologic changes:

     Microcytic hypochromic

     Normocytic normochromic

    Macrocytic normochromic


Subnormal levels of haemoglobin causes lower oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.this,in turn initiates compensatory physiologic adaptation as follows.

Increased release of oxygen from blood

Increased blood flow to the tissues

Mainteanance of the volume of blood

Redistribution of blood flow to maintain the cerebral supply

Tissue hypoxia leads to the impaired function of the organs.

Clinical signs & symptoms




Ischaemic symptoms


Differential Diagnosis

  • Complete blood count (CBC)
  •  A CBC is used to count the number of blood cells in a sample of your blood. For anemia, your doctor will be interested in the levels of the red blood cells contained in your blood (hematocrit) and the hemoglobin in your blood.
  • Normal adult hematocrit values vary among medical practices but are generally between 40% and 52% for men and 35% and 47% for women. Normal adult hemoglobin values are generally 14 to 18 grams per deciliter for men and 12 to 16 grams per deciliter for women.

  • A test to determine the size and shape of your red blood cells(Peripheral blood smear)Some of your red blood cells might also be examined for unusual size, shape and color.
  • Serum iron and ferritin test-to check the amount of iron in blood and body
  • Reticulocyte test:to check that the bone marrow is functioning in an accelerated level
  • Haemoglobin electrophoresis:to check the abnormality of haemoglobin as seen in the sickle cell anaemia and thalassemia.
  • Osmotic fragility test: to check if the red blood cells are more fragile than usual
  • Endoscopy:to check for internal bleeding
  • Colonoscopy:to check for bleeding from tumour in the intestine
  • Ultrasound:to check for enlarged spleen
  • Doppler ultrasound:it detect the circulatory anomalies that is suggestive of anaemia  in new borns
  • Body Magnetic resonance imaging:It is used to reveal the functions of bone marrow and also it is used to find the deposition of iron in heart,liver and other vital organs.


The prognosis of the anaemia depends on the indivduals status and response to the iron therapy .


Dietary intake of Iron

Arrest bleeding when ever it is necessary