Inflammation of the joints. The most common forms are osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis usually occurs with age and affects the fingers, knees, and hips. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that often affects the hands and feet. Other types include gout,lupus ,fibromyalgia ,septic arthritis.
It is more common among the old age group of above 65 years.I t is more common in women when compared to men.
Age-it is common among the peoples of above 65 years of age
Muscle strain-overweight,sternous exercises
Reduced synovial fluid(a lubricant present inbetween the joints)
Thickening and deposition of bone between the synovial joints.
Stiffness of the joint capsule
Worn out articulat joints
The arthritis afffcets single joints or multiple joints.
Type sof arthritis:
It is a chronic inflammatory condition of the joints.initially the synovial memebrane becomes swollen due to the predisposing factor and losses its smoothness and it ends in thickening of the embrane.Blood flow to the site is increased and depositions of fibers and white blood cells happen giving rise to the formation of pannus(a mass formed from fibres) which reduces the gap between two joints resulting in stiffness of the joints.sometimes the joint bone is exposed.
It ocuurs mainly in cartilages.Inspite of greater number of inflammatory cells taking the reactions osteoarthritis mainly depends upon the chondrocytes(termed as cartilage producing cells).The main problem is the cartilages rejunuvate and new cells are formed but the new cells undergoes death very soon.The degeneration of the chondrocytes continues.In the end cartilages crack and small pieces come out of the fluid and thus the synovial fluid starts to flow away from the joints.Resulting in bony outgrowth and the tissue expands.
3.Juvenile idiopathic arthritis:
Chronic joint inflammation and occurs before the age of 16.itincludes:
Persistent or extended oligoarthritis
Rheumatoid factor (RF)–positive polyarthritis
Rheumatoid factor (RF)-negative polyarthritis
Psoriatic juvenile idiopathic arthritis
4.Seronegative spondylo arthropathies: it is immune mediated and infkammmation is caused by an unknown antigen
Arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease
It is also termed as septic arthritis.micro organisms enter the joint space and infect the articular spaces.it includes,
6.Crystal induced arthritis:
Crystals include monosodium urate as in gout,disodium phosphoglycerate as in pseudo gout,calcium phosphate .these are termed as exogenous crstals.Endogenous crystals include corticosteroid crystals,polyethylene,methylacrylate and talcum.deposition of these crystals occurs in spaces between the articular joint.
Traumatic or post-traumatic arthritis is joint inflammation due to injury. The trauma may affect the entire joint or just parts of its like the cartilage or bone. It may be caused by a fall, sporting injury like a kick, motor vehicle accident, assault, bullet or knife wound and so on.
COMMON CLINICAL SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS :
Pain during movement of the joints
Malaise and fatigue
Muscle ache and pain
Numbness and tingling
Reduced range of motions
Analysis of different types of body fluid is indicated.Fluids include blood,urine and joint fluids.
Xrays-bone can show damage to cartilage,bone damage and bone spurs.but xray fails to show any arthritic damage
Computerized tomography:it shows cross sectional views of internal structures.
Magnetic resonance imaging:
Cross section studies of soft tissues such as cartilage ,tendons and ligaments are obtained.
Soft tissue image,cartilage and fluid structure are obtained.
Arthroscopy:It is an 3D device used to visualize the joint images.
TREATMENT AND PROGNOSIS :
Treatment options varies from indivduals.The main treatments include physiotherapy.diet control,joint replacement therapy,and certain medications to get relieve from symptoms.
Physical exercises provides greater releif from pain in arthritis and it also increases the flexibility of the joints to certain degrees.
Patients suffering from arthritis can benefit from both physical as well as occupational therapy. In arthritis the joints become stiff and the range of movement are limited to the extent.. Physical therapy has been shown to significantly improve function, decrease pain, and delay need for surgical intervention in advanced cases. Exercise prescribed by a physical therapist has been shown to be more effective than medications in treating osteoarthritis of the knee. Exercises mostly focuses on the flexibility and strength of the joints. Occupational therapy can provide assistance with activities.
They are various treatment options available for the treatment of arthritis and medications which has lower side effects are selected as the first choice of treatment in arthritis.
Orthroscopic surgery for arthritis does not provide much effect.
People with hand arthritis can have trouble with simple activities daily doing tasks (ADLs), such as turning a key in a lock or opening jars, as these activities can be cumbersome and painful. Adaptive aids or assistanve aids are available in the market to assist the patient and simplyfing those task to them. but they are generally more costly than conventional products with the same function. It is now possible to 3D print adaptive aids, which have been released as open source hardware to reduce patient costs. Adaptive aids can significantly help arthritis patients and the vast majority of those with arthritis need and use them.
Further research is required to determine if TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION(TENS) for knee osteoarthritis is effective for controlling pain.
Low level laser therapy may be considered for relief of pain and stiffness associated with arthritis. Evidence of benefit is tentative
the prognosis is good on taking medications
Do stretch exercises
Reduce the body weight
Eat fish or twice a week-since fish contains omega 3 fatty acids which can reduce inflammation in the bone.
Protect the joints and avoid joint injuries.
It is a chronic condition.It might takes months to years to go away.
Recovery Period :
it is a chronic illness and hence it take several months to years foe recovery