The childrens suffering from this disease shows abnormal behavioural patterns,social skills and difficulty in verbal communication.it is also known as autism spectrum disorder , a type of neurological condition
AUTISM is more common among boys when compared to girl child.
Teratogens-when they are consumed within 8 weeks of gestational period
Some researchers says that environmental factors such as air pollution can also have an impact on the autism
Pre term babies
Some suggest that the following resons during the pregnancy time can aggaravate the disease:
Gesatational diabetis in mother
Obesity in mother
Intake of alcochol during pregnant times.
Unbalanced vitamin levels
Exposure to pesticides when mother is concieved.
Autism tends to result from damage or mutation in the brain stem.
The following areas of the brain are affected in the autism
prefrontal and temporal cortexes
Neuroanatomical studies and the associations with teratogens strongly suggest that the mechanism includes alteration of brain development soon after conception. Abnormal fetal development may affect the final structure and connectivity of the brain, resulting in altered neural circuits controlling thought and behavior. Several theories of mechanism are available; none are likely to provide a complete explanation.
Parental age:Parents in the age of mid 30s shows higher chances for the disease
Sex:Boys are more prone to the disease when compared to the girls
Birth order:the first born child are more prone for the disease when compared to the other disease.
Malnutrition can aggravate the autism
COMMON CLINICAL SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS :
Difficulty in speech
They prefer playing alone and avoid groups
Inability to respond to the situation
Lack of response to their name
Difficulty in learning
Poor eye contact
Doesn’t able to understand their surroundings
Don’t know to express their emotion
Make repetitive movements
Speech that sounds abnormal
Electroencephalogram(EEG): the doctors might suggest EEG to detect any abnormalities in the brain.
The diagnostic criteria is based on the various scoring as follows:
Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders-revised(DSM-IV):
Qualitative impairement with social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following:
marked impairment in the use of multiple non-verbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction;
failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level;
a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests or achievements with other people (e.g.: by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest to other people);
lack of social or emotional reciprocity.
Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:
encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus;
apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals;
stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g.: hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements);
persistent preoccupation with parts of objects
The disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
There is no clinically significant general delay in language (eg: single words used by age 2 years, communicative phrases used by age 3 years).
There is no clinically significant delay in cognitive development or in the development of age-appropriate self-help skills, adaptive behavior (other than social interaction), and curiosity about the environment in childhood.
Criteria are not met for another specific Pervasive Developmental Disorder, or Schizophrenia.
The gold standard in diagnosing the autism is judgement with Autism diagnostic interview revised (ADI-R), a semistructured parent interview; and the Autism diagnostic observational schedule (ADOS), a conversation and play-based interview with the child. Delayed or mistaken diagnosis can be traumatic for individuals and families; for example, misdiagnosis can lead to medications that worsen behavior.
0: "Behavior of the type specified in the coding is not present"
1: "Behavior of the type specified is present in an abnormal form, but not sufficiently severe or frequent to meet the criteria for a 2"
2: "Definite abnormal behavior"
3: "Extreme severity of the specified behavior"
7: "Definite abnormality in the general area of the coding, but not of the type specified"
8: "Not applicable"
9: "Not known or asked"
TREATMENT AND PROGNOSIS :
Treatment of the autism include multidisciplinay approach.
Applied Behavioural analysis including positive behavioural approach:
Includes training the parents ,trachers,school faculties and other peer group of the child affected with this disease.
Cognitive behavioural therapy:it includes the stress management in the children and also relieve them from their anxiety and obsessive repetative behaviours.This therapy also focuses on the child’s emotional disturbances.
Medications:they are indicated mainly to treat the major depressive disorder and anxiety disorder
Occupational oe physical theyapy:They mainly indulge in sensory processing and motor coordination behaviour of the child.
Social communication therapy:it includes the speech therapy to help pragamatics.
Inspite of the social skills training and occupational therapy the improvement is purely
Depends upon the individual and their peer groups.
The medications mainly focuses on the emotion control.
They have greater life time expectancy about the major thing is they suffer from psychiatric comorbidities.
There is no pre-natal test or other predictor for Autism while a fetus is in utero. Autism is diagnosed via a collection of common traits or symptoms that usually manifest in early childhood development.
The best way to prevent the disease is the early diagnosis of the disease and starting the treatments as soon as possible.
Focus on the positive reinforcement:encourage the child with positive reinforcement
Follow the therapy correctly without fail
Get your child to participate in daily activities
Provide them care and support
Get the child into the group activities.
Recovery Period :
it is a chronic condition and the recovery is mainly based on the childs mental health.