Autism overview and Definition

The childrens suffering from this disease shows abnormal behavioural patterns,social skills and difficulty in verbal communication.it is  also known as autism spectrum disorder , a type of neurological condition


AUTISM is more common among boys when compared to girl child.


 Autism tends to result from damage or mutation in the brain stem.

The following areas of the brain are affected in the autism

  • cerebellum
  • prefrontal and temporal cortexes
  • hippocampus
  • amygdala


Neuroanatomical studies and the associations with teratogens strongly suggest that the mechanism includes alteration of brain development soon after conception. Abnormal fetal development may affect the final structure and connectivity of the brain, resulting in altered neural circuits controlling thought and behavior. Several theories of mechanism are available; none are likely to provide a complete explanation.

Risk factors:

Parental age:Parents in the age of mid 30s shows higher chances for the disease

Sex:Boys are more prone to the disease when compared to the girls

Birth order:the first born child are more prone for the disease when compared to the other disease.

Malnutrition can aggravate the autism

Clinical signs & symptoms

Difficulty in speech

They prefer playing alone and avoid groups

Inability to respond to the situation

Lack of response to their name

Difficulty in learning

Poor eye contact

Doesn’t able to understand their surroundings

Don’t know to express their emotion

Make repetitive movements

Speech that sounds abnormal

Differential Diagnosis

Electroencephalogram(EEG): the doctors might suggest EEG to detect any abnormalities in the brain.

The diagnostic criteria is based on the various scoring as follows:

Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders-revised(DSM-IV):

  1. Qualitative impairement with social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following:
    1. marked impairment in the use of multiple non-verbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction;
    2. failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level;
    3. a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests or achievements with other people (e.g.: by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest to other people);
    4. lack of social or emotional reciprocity.
  2. Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:
    1. encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus;
    2. apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals;
    3. stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g.: hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements);
    4. persistent preoccupation with parts of objects
  3. The disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
  4. There is no clinically significant general delay in language (eg: single words used by age 2 years, communicative phrases used by age 3 years).
  5. There is no clinically significant delay in cognitive development or in the development of age-appropriate self-help skills, adaptive behavior (other than social interaction), and curiosity about the environment in childhood.
  6. Criteria are not met for another specific Pervasive Developmental Disorder, or Schizophrenia.

                        The gold standard in diagnosing the autism is judgement with  Autism diagnostic interview revised (ADI-R), a semistructured parent interview; and the Autism  diagnostic observational schedule (ADOS), a conversation and play-based interview with the child. Delayed or mistaken diagnosis can be traumatic for individuals and families; for example, misdiagnosis can lead to medications that worsen behavior.


  • 0: "Behavior of the type specified in the coding is not present"
  • 1: "Behavior of the type specified is present in an abnormal form, but not sufficiently severe or frequent to meet the criteria for a 2"
  • 2: "Definite abnormal behavior"
  • 3: "Extreme severity of the specified behavior"
  • 7: "Definite abnormality in the general area of the coding, but not of the type specified"
  • 8: "Not applicable"
  • 9: "Not known or asked"


They have greater life time expectancy about the major thing is they suffer from psychiatric comorbidities.

There is no pre-natal test or other predictor for Autism while a fetus is in utero. Autism is diagnosed via a collection of common traits or symptoms that usually manifest in early childhood development.

The best way to prevent the disease is the early diagnosis of the disease and starting the treatments as soon as possible.



Focus on the positive reinforcement:encourage the child with positive reinforcement

Follow the therapy correctly without fail

Get your child to participate in daily activities

Provide them care and support

Get the child into the group activities.






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