Tests and procedures used to diagnose bladder cancer may include:
It is the small, narrow tube (cystoscope) through the urethra. The cystoscope has a lens and also it emits light and what happens in the inside of your urethra and bladder, to examine these structures for signs of disease.
It is the procedure of removing the tissue from the bladder
In cystoscopic procedure , it has some specialized tool through which the scope and into your bladder to collect a cell sample (biopsy) . This procedure is sometimes called transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). TURBT can also be used to treat bladder cancer.
- Examining a urine sample (urine cytology). A sample of your urine is analyzed under a microscope to check for cancer cells in a procedure called urine cytology.
- Imaging tests. Imaging tests, such as computerized tomography (CT) urogram or retrograde pyelogram, are used to reveal the structures in the urinary tract.
During a CT urogram, a contrast dye is injected intravenously by the hand and eventually flows into your kidneys, ureters and bladder. X-ray images taken during the test provide a detailed view of your urinary tract
Retrograde pyelogram is an X-ray exam used to get a detailed look at the upper urinary tract. The threads a thin tube (catheter) through your urethra and into your bladder to inject contrast dye into your ureters. The dye then flows into your kidneys while X-ray images are captured.
Determining the extent of the cancer:
After determining the above mentioned test the doctor might suggest the following diagnostic test:
Tests may include:
- CT scan
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Positron emission tomography (PET)
- Bone scan
- Chest X-ray
Bladder cancer grade
Bladder cancers are further classified based on how the cancer cells appear when viewed through a microscope. This is known as the grade, and your doctor may describe bladder cancer as either low grade or high grade:
- Low-grade bladder cancer. This type of cancer has cells that are closer in appearance and organization to normal cells (well differentiated). A low-grade tumor usually grows more slowly and is less likely to invade the muscular wall of the bladder than is a high-grade tumor.
- High-grade bladder cancer. This type of cancer has cells that are abnormal-looking and that lack any resemblance to normal-appearing tissues (poorly differentiated). A high-grade tumor tends to grow more aggressively than a low-grade tumor and may be more likely to spread to the muscular wall of the bladder and other tissues and organs.
Stages in the bladder cancer:
The cancer is not spread but has potential development of the cancer in the future which is termed as carcinoma insitu.
The cancer cells are consider to the localized area. This is also called the early stage cancer
Stage 2 and Stage 3:
It indicates that the cancer cell has spread to the nearby lymphnodes or tissues.
Type 4 :
It indicates that the cancer has spread to other parts of the body and also it easily gets metastasis. This is also called an advanced type of cancer.