diease

Blurred Vision


OVERVIEW OF Blurred Vision :

Blurry vision is the loss of vision that makes the eye out of focus.


EPIDEMIOLOGY :

All  age groups are affected with blurriness. At the age of 65 one in three people might get affected


CAUSES :

Nearsightedness,

 Farsightedness

  • xeropthalmia
  • cataracts
  • glaucoma
  • damage to the cornea
  • age related macular regeration
  • an eye infection
  • problems with the retina, such as diabetic retinopathy
  • an injury to the eye

Blurred vision can also be a symptom of another medical condition, such as:

  • diabetes
  • migraine
  • stroke
  • head injury
  • hypoglycaemia
  • pre eclampsia(high blood pressure) if you are pregnant
  • psoriasis(a skin condition that sometimes can also affect the eyes)
  • multipe scelerosis
  • brain tumour
  • parkinson disease


 

 

 

 


PATHOPHYSIOLOGY :

Pathophysiology of blurred vision:

Blurred vision may result from refractive errors, opacity of structures ((lens,cornea,vitreous), retina and optic nerve diseases.

Refractive error:

The light entering the eyes does not bend properly  resulting in blurred vision


COMMON CLINICAL SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS :

photophobia or sensitivity to light

xerophthalmia

eye strain

cannot able to focus the object properly

headache

sometimes double vision

 


DIAGNOSTIC :

         Acuity is measured when the patient stands 6m away from the snellens chart.If this could not be measured the chart can be held at 36 cm away from the site. Each eye is tested separately by closing one with an solid object or finger tightly. If the patient  cannot see within 6m then 3 m is tested with the help of chart.

       If the patient finds difficult to see the chart then the ophthalmologist prefer by keeping different numbers in finger and ask those persons to count them.

       The examiner uses this to check whether the patient is able to perceive the finger or else he tends to reflects the light in the patient’s eye to look for perception of reflection.

       Then the visual acuity is checked. The acuity is checked with or without the use of glasses. If the acuity is checked with glasses and it is correctable then it accounts for refractive error.

     If patients do not have their glasses, a pinhole refractor is used. If a commercial pinhole refractor is unavailable, one can be made at the bedside by poking holes through a piece of cardboard using an 18-gauge needle and varying the diameter of each hole slightly. Patients choose the hole that corrects vision the most.

     If acuity corrects with pinhole refraction, the problem is a refractive error. Pinhole refraction is a rapid, efficient way to diagnose refractive errors, which are the most common cause of blurred vision. However, with pinhole refraction, best correction is usually to only about 20/30, not 20/20.

 

Eye examination:

The eye is checked  for pupillary reflex by flashlight. The cornea is tested for opacification. This is used for accommodation reflex.

Assess the macular function with Amsler grid- this examines the central vision.The amsler grid contains many squares and this test is used to access the corners,rows and columns of the square.

Extra ocular movements should be checked.


TREATMENT AND PROGNOSIS :

Life style changes:

Avoiding focusing eye on monitor for prolonged time and diet modifications.

Vitamin and hormone regulating substances

Blood vessels or hypergycemic monitoring medications

Surgeries such as LASIK might be indicates.

In LASIK surgery cutting laser is used to reshape the cornea.In normal eye reflection the incoming ray is bend correctly to produce the image.

But in cases with myopia and hypermyopia , the perception of ray is difficult to cope up with it resulting in abnormal bending of the eye and causes blurred images


PROGNOSIS :

The prognosis is good on correcting the refractive errors or taking proper tretment.


PREVENTION :

  • In most cases, visual blurring occurs with aging. It is better to opt for eye exercises before the blur gets worse or leads to serious illness. Simple eye exercises can help you maintain optimal vision.
  • Warm your eyes regularly by rubbing your hands together and then placing them over your eyes for 5-10 seconds. Repeat this three times for each session.
  • Rolling the eyes is another way of calming the eyes. Roll the eyes 10 times, both clockwise and counterclockwise. It is recommended to do this exercise with the eyelids closed.
  • Focusing exercises such as pen push-ups can also help achieve a clearer vision and even naturally improve eye vision.

Rest, repair, and recovery:

  • Human eyes are sensitive, which is why they require more rest than any other external organ. Providing the eyes with sufficient rest for the day would improve your vision.
  • Getting decent sleep is one of the important things you need to remember. Getting deep sleep for about 8 hours a day would allow your eyes to rest, repair, and recover.
  • If you suffer from blurry eyesight, you should schedule an hourly eye break at your workplace. Or if you love to read or surf the computer, be sure to rest your eyes for 10 minutes every 50 minutes until you get tired of your eyes.
  • If you feel that your eyes are too tired, always remember a rule of thumb for eye relaxation. Place cold cucumber slices on your eyelids. It would soothe your eyes in the best possible way.

Avoid triggers:

  • When you suffer from temporary blurred vision, you need to identify triggers and avoid them. Anxiety, stress, migraines, and health issues are some common triggers for blurred vision.
  • Getting decent sleep is one of the important things you need to remember. Getting deep sleep for about 8 hours a day would allow your eyes to rest, repair, and recover.
  • Try to keep track of your pain and migraines. Sometimes migraines are accompanied by a blurring of vision, so identifying the triggers for your headaches can also help reduce visual disturbances.
  • To manage stress and reduce anxiety, you can do meditation or aromatherapy. Also join the support and seek for help.
  • Always wear sunglasses that provide broad-spectrum protection when you’re going out in the sun.
  • Eat a diet rich in eye halthy nutrient. The antioxidant lutein can be found in dark, leafy green such as spinach and kale. Foods high in omega 3 fatty acids include albacour, and halibut. Get vitamin A From sources such as carrots,sweet potatoes, liver.
  • Undergo regular comprehensive eye exams, especially if someone in your family has a history of an eye disease.
  • Wash your hands before putting on or taking out contact lenses to reduce infection risk.
  • Wear protective eyewear when operating heavy machinery or engaging in activities such as painting and home repairs.


Recovery Period :

Recovery period might take days to month depending upon the indivdual status.


REFERENCE :

https://www.medicinenet.com/blurred_vision/symptoms.htm

https://www.allaboutvision.com/en-in/

http://healthline.com

https://www.insightvisioncenter.com/

https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/