Brain Tumour

Brain Tumour overview and Definition

  The brain tumour is termed as the abnormal growth or mass of cells in the brain. The skull is an rigid structure and it encloses the brain. When any abnormalities such as cancerous or non cancerous tumours occurs develops in that restricted space it might leads to the cause of the brain cell tumour. The growth of the tumour creates pressure in the brain and eventually causes serious complications

Clinical signs & symptoms

The symptoms are based upon the site of the brain area involved:

Frontal lobe:

Change in personality

Aggressive nature

Loss of speech and vision

Loss of smell

Difficulty in walking

Weakness in one side of the body


Temporal lobe:

Forgetting words

Short term memory loss


Parietal lobe:

Difficulty in speaking

Difficulty reading or writing

Loss of feeling inn one side of the body

Occipital lobe:

Vision impairement


Issue with co-ordination of the movements


Uncontrolled eye movements


Neck stiffness

Brain stem:

 Eyelid or mouth drooping on one side

 Difficulty swallowing

     Difficulty speaking

Double Vision

Issues with co ordination

Spinal cord:



loss bowel and bladder habits

difficulty is walking

weakness in legs and arms

Pituitary gland:

Lack of energy

Weight gain

Mood Swings

High blood pressure


Enlarged hands/feet

(Women) Irregular/Infrequent Periods

 Infertility / Impotence


Head ache

Feeling heaviness in head


Sight pain

Neck stiffness



Tingling sensation


Memory loss

Differential Diagnosis

  • Physical exam and medical history: Your doctor will perform a general health exam, looking for signs of diseases or illnesses. Your doctor will also ask questions about past and current health conditions, surgeries and medical treatments and family history of disease.
  • Blood test: To check for tumor markers (substances secreted into blood by tumors) that are linked to certain types of tumors.
  • Biopsy: Through a small hole in the skull, a doctor uses a needle to take a sample of tissue from the tumor. A laboratory studies the sample to identify details from the tumor, including how fast it is growing and whether it is spreading.

          Biomarker: Biomarkers or genetic mutations found in the tumor may help  to determine the  prognosis. These include: IDH1IDH2MGMT, and 1p/19q co-deletion.

  • Imaging tests: CT scans, MRI scans  SPECTs and PET scans help doctors locate the tumor and determine if it is cancerous or benign. Your doctor may also look at other parts of the body, such as the lungs, colon or breasts, to identify where the tumor started.
  • Neurological exam: During a neurological exam, your doctor will look for changes in your balance, coordination, mental status, hearing, vision and reflexes. These changes can point to the part of your brain that may be affected by a tumor.
  • Spinal tap: A doctor uses a small needle to remove fluid from around the spine. A laboratory examines this fluid to look for cancer cells.


Some brain tumours grow very slowly (low grade) and cannot be cured. Depending on your age at diagnosis, the tumour may eventually cause your death. The extent of the tumour also plays a vital role in prognosis of the disease. Metastic tumour is critical to get the good prognosis in them.

  • Grade I. These tumors are slow growing and unlikely to spread. They can often be cured with surgery.
  • Grade IIThese tumors are less likely to grow and spread but are more likely to come back after treatment.
  • Grade III. These tumors are more likely to have rapidly dividing cells but no dead cells. They can grow quickly.
  • Grade IV. In a grade IV tumor, cells in the tumor are actively dividing. In addition, the tumor has both blood vessel growth and areas of dead tissue. These tumors can grow and spread quickly.


Avoid the exposure to environmental hazards

ckeck the blood pressure regularly

practises yoga

Avoid the exposure to ionizing radiation to an larger extent.