In this type of investigation the sound waves are used. The sound waves penetrate the breast and notifies the affected areas. The echoes are not heard by the humans but the echoes are utilized by the computers in processing the abnormalities of the breast.
An ultrasound can say if the lump consists of an solid mass or the cyst filled with the fluid or the combination of the both.
Exact size and the location of the lump can be revealed.
A mammogram is a x ray of the breast tissue. The radiologist who is doing the test zoom the specific area of the breast where the abnormality is more.
The mammogram also reveals the ductal carcinoma insitu. Ductal carcinoma insitu is a cancer which is developed by the cells lining the ducts. These cells later might invade the ductal cells and becomes invasive cancer in future.
Nowadays the 3D MAMMOGRAMS OR TOMOSYNTHESIS are used which reveals the breast cancer more accurately than the normal x ray analogue mammogram.
Magnetic resonance imaging:
This can be used to assess the extent of the disease.
Magnet is connected to the computer and this magnet help in the emission of magnetic energy and radio waves through the tissues,with the help of this the abnormality is ruled out.
The two most common lab tests are the HORMONE RECEPTOR TEST AND THE HER2/NEU TEST.
The test which shows positive for both estrogen and progesterone receptors shows good prognosis than others.
Similar to the hormone receptor test, the HER2/neu test looks for a specific kind of protein that is found with certain types of cancer cells and the gene that produces it. The formal name of that gene is the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and it makes HER2 proteins. These proteins are receptors on breast cells.
The fluid or cells are drawn from the breast and the alteration in the morphology of the cells are seen.