diease

Bug bites and Stings


OVERVIEW OF Bug bites and Stings :

Bees, ants, fleas, flies, mosquitoes, wasps, and arachnids are the common insects which bites the human being . the initial contact with these bites might be painful and also it causes some irritation in the bite area. Some allergic reaction might take place followed by the bite of these stings and these are the immune mediated reaction to the venom.


CAUSES :

Mosquitoe bites:

  •  It is a small round puffy area that is visible as soon as the mosquitoe bites the area.
  • The area might turn red and it is itchy
  • You might see series of red inflamed and puffy areas around the skin
  •  

Fire ant bites:

  • Fire ants are small, red or black in colour and they possess the strong bites.
  • Bites might appears as the swollen area and sometimes the blisters might appears on the skin surface
  • But the burning and itchiness caused by the sting ,might be present more than a week

Flea bites:

  • Flea bites are see as clusters on the lower legs and feet.
  • The itchy, red bumps are surrounded by a red halo.
  • Symptoms begin immediately after you feel bitten.

 

Bed bug bites:

  • The allergic reactions leads to the itchiness.
  • The small rashes have red and swollen and drak centered areas.
  • Site:usually on areas of the body not covered by clothing, such as the hands, neck, or feet.
  • Blisters might develops at the bite site

Fly bites:

  • Painful inflammatory reactions that occurs at the bite site.
  • They are usually harmless but sometimes it might result in the severe allergic reactions.

Lice:

  • Head lice, pubic lice and body lice are the some of the regions where the lice attckes the human being.
  • They feed on blood and cause an itchy immune reaction at the site of their bites.
  • Nits (eggs) and nymphs (baby lice) can only be seen as very tiny specks that may look like dandruff.

Chiggers:

  • Painful, itchy rashes may be caused by an immune response to the bites of tiny mite larva.
  • Bites appear as welts, blisters, pimples, or hives.
  • The bites are extremely itchyness
  • Chigger bites may be grouped in skin folds or near areas where clothing fits tightly

Tick bites:

  • Tick bites can cause pain or swelling in the bite area
  • They may also lead to a rash, burning sensation, blisters, or difficulty breathing.
  • The tick often atttcahed to the skin.

 Scabies:

  • Symptoms may take 4 to 6 weeks to appear.
  • Extremely causes some rashes and also results in pimple regions and also resultsb in blisters.
  • They may cause raised, white, or flesh-toned lines.

Bees:

  • pain, redness, swelling, or itching occurs at the site of the sting.
  • When the stinger punctures the skin a white spot might appear
  • Unlike bumblebees and carpenter bees, honeybees can only sting once due to their barbed stinger that can remain in the skin.

Wasps:

  • Sharp pain, redness, swelling, and itching or burning occurs at the sting site.
  • The stingered site has a raised welt appearance
  • Wasps may be aggressive and also causes several bites.
  • Scorpions:
  • These are eight-legged arachnids with large pincers and long, segmented, stinger-tipped tails over their backs.

Intense pain, tingling, numbness, and swelling occurs around the sting


PATHOPHYSIOLOGY :

Most insects bites causes the allergic reactions when an insects causes a secreations on the bite site.

Histamine, acetylcholine, and other vasoactive chemicals have also been isolated from the venom of stinging insects, and these might plays an vital role in the immediate reaction.

The degree of host allergy determines the intensity of the reaction, which ranges from none to severe.


COMMON CLINICAL SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS :

  • swelling
  • redness or rash
  • pain in the affected area or in the muscles
  • itching
  • heat on and around the site of the bite or sting
  • numbness or tingling in the affected area

Symptoms of a severe reaction requiring immediate medical treatment include:

  • fever
  • difficulty breathing
  • nausea or vomiting
  • muscle spasms
  • rapid heartbeat
  • swelling of the lips and throat
  • confusion
  • Rare symptoms include breathing difficulties, muscle twitching, drooling, sweating, nausea, vomiting, increased heart rate, restlessness, excitability.


DIAGNOSTIC :

Mostly the diagnosis occurs by signs and symptoms list above by fifferent of insects and bugs.

Histopathology:

 A biopsy may support the diagnosis, as insect bites have a characteristic microscopic appearance. The histopathology of papular urticaria includes mild dermal oedema, extravasation of erythrocytes, interstitial eosinophils, and exocytosis of lymphocytes. Vasculitic features may be noted.

Intradermal skin test

It is similar to skin test in which the the small amount of allergen is injected into the skin.This test is done if the prick test is negative.

Challenge test

This test is done in food contamination with the bacteria.The patient is asked to consume small amount of the contaminated food again and the effects are supervised under healthcare proffesional

Blood test

In this test, a sample of your blood is drawn. This test is also called serum IgE testing or ImmunoCAP test.InnumoCAP test is based in the fluoro Immunoassay and complement system.It is used to measure the amount of antibodies produced in response.

Patch test

This test involves placing a small amount of possible allergens on your skin (usually your back) and then covering each of them with a bandage. Your allergist may perform this test if they suspect an allergy in which the allergic reaction is delayed. The bandages are left in place for two to three days before you return to the office to have the bandages removed and your skin examined.

Component-Resolved Diagnostic Tests or Molecular-Based Diagnosis:

        This test is done in patients to whom the infection has occured due to the ingestion of the foods to patients to obtain what type of proteins they are allergic to it


TREATMENT AND PROGNOSIS :

Topical steroid cream(betamethasone,hydrocortisone) – to overcome the itchy spots.

Antihistamines such as cetirizine, chlopheniramine, levocetrizine, brompheniramine are used

Duplimab- used in the treatment of dermatitis

Epinephrine-Anaphylaxis reaction


PROGNOSIS :

The prognosis is good and it mainly depends upon the individuals immune status

 


PREVENTION :

To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips:

  1. Usage of repellants:  Use the repellants in the bite site. See to it that the repellants might contains the 20-30% of DEET. So the repallant in the unexposed skin part.
  2. Wear appropriate clothing:  Use full sleeves and socks whenever going outside the home.
  3. Use bed nets: If sleeping in the great outdoors, use bed nets to protect against mosquitoes. Look for one that has been pre-treated with pyrethroid insecticide. If it doesn’t reach the floor, tuck it under the mattress for maximum protection.


Recovery Period :

The recovery period is about 1-2 weeks


Medicines used in the Treatment :

cetirizine

chlopheniramine

levocetrizine

brompheniramine

Duplimab

Epinephrine