diease

Bug bites and Stings


Bug bites and Stings overview and Definition

Bees, ants, fleas, flies, mosquitoes, wasps, and arachnids are the common insects which bites the human being . the initial contact with these bites might be painful and also it causes some irritation in the bite area. Some allergic reaction might take place followed by the bite of these stings and these are the immune mediated reaction to the venom.


Pathophysiology

Most insects bites causes the allergic reactions when an insects causes a secreations on the bite site.

Histamine, acetylcholine, and other vasoactive chemicals have also been isolated from the venom of stinging insects, and these might plays an vital role in the immediate reaction.

The degree of host allergy determines the intensity of the reaction, which ranges from none to severe.


Clinical signs & symptoms

  • swelling
  • redness or rash
  • pain in the affected area or in the muscles
  • itching
  • heat on and around the site of the bite or sting
  • numbness or tingling in the affected area

Symptoms of a severe reaction requiring immediate medical treatment include:

  • fever
  • difficulty breathing
  • nausea or vomiting
  • muscle spasms
  • rapid heartbeat
  • swelling of the lips and throat
  • confusion
  • Rare symptoms include breathing difficulties, muscle twitching, drooling, sweating, nausea, vomiting, increased heart rate, restlessness, excitability.


Differential Diagnosis

Mostly the diagnosis occurs by signs and symptoms list above by fifferent of insects and bugs.

Histopathology:

 A biopsy may support the diagnosis, as insect bites have a characteristic microscopic appearance. The histopathology of papular urticaria includes mild dermal oedema, extravasation of erythrocytes, interstitial eosinophils, and exocytosis of lymphocytes. Vasculitic features may be noted.

Intradermal skin test

It is similar to skin test in which the the small amount of allergen is injected into the skin.This test is done if the prick test is negative.

Challenge test

This test is done in food contamination with the bacteria.The patient is asked to consume small amount of the contaminated food again and the effects are supervised under healthcare proffesional

Blood test

In this test, a sample of your blood is drawn. This test is also called serum IgE testing or ImmunoCAP test.InnumoCAP test is based in the fluoro Immunoassay and complement system.It is used to measure the amount of antibodies produced in response.

Patch test

This test involves placing a small amount of possible allergens on your skin (usually your back) and then covering each of them with a bandage. Your allergist may perform this test if they suspect an allergy in which the allergic reaction is delayed. The bandages are left in place for two to three days before you return to the office to have the bandages removed and your skin examined.

Component-Resolved Diagnostic Tests or Molecular-Based Diagnosis:

        This test is done in patients to whom the infection has occured due to the ingestion of the foods to patients to obtain what type of proteins they are allergic to it


Prognosis

The prognosis is good and it mainly depends upon the individuals immune status

 


Prevention

To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips:

  1. Usage of repellants:  Use the repellants in the bite site. See to it that the repellants might contains the 20-30% of DEET. So the repallant in the unexposed skin part.
  2. Wear appropriate clothing:  Use full sleeves and socks whenever going outside the home.
  3. Use bed nets: If sleeping in the great outdoors, use bed nets to protect against mosquitoes. Look for one that has been pre-treated with pyrethroid insecticide. If it doesn’t reach the floor, tuck it under the mattress for maximum protection.