The following are the different types of the heart diseases:
Arrythmia: Problem with the electrical conduction system of the heart which can lead to abnormal heart rhythms or heart rates. The electrical conduction system of the heart monitores the transmission of impulses needed for the heart to function properly.
Atheroscelerosis: This refers to the blockage of the blood vessels by the fatty tissues. This leads to the reduced or lossed blood supply to the heart.
Valve diseases: problem with the heart valves either bicuspid or tricuspid valves the structure that mediates the to and fro movement of the blood in the heart. The valvular dysfunction includes valve tightening or leaking.
Coronary artery disease: This is the main complication of the heart attack. The main problem with the coronary artery diseases is the blockages is seen in the artery. These blockage can lead to the loss of blood supply to the heart.
Heart failure: Problem with heart pumping or relaxing functions which lead to fluid buildup and shortness of breath.
Peripheral artery disease: Problem with the blood vessels of the arms, legs or abdominal organs, such as narrowing or blockages of the vessels.
Aortic disease: Aorta is an organ that mediates the flow of blood to the vital organs such as brain and heart. Such dilatation of the blood vessels is called Aneurysm.
Congenital heart disease: Congenital disease refers to the disease that is present from the birth. It can affect different parts of the heart
Pericardial disease: It refers to the problem with the lining of the heart, including pericarditis and pericardial effusion. Pericarditis refers to the inflammation of the outer covering of the heart. And pericardial effusion refers to the collection of fluid in the outer surface of the heart.
Cerebrovascular disease: Problem with the blood vessels that deliver blood to the brain such as narrowing of blood vessels or blockages.
Deep vein thrombosis: Blockage in the veins, vessels that bring blood back from the brain or body to the heart.
Increase in the level of the LDL , BP, Diabetes and smoking might leads to oxidative stress formation.
Oxidative stress formation results in endothelial dysfunction and smooth muscle activation.
This term refers to the formation of the free radicals. This term refers to any molecule that contains an unpaired electron in the outer orbit. This unpaired electron makes the molecule highly reactive, leading the molecule to either donate an electron to another compound or take up protons from another compound to obtain a stable electron pair. This can attach to the cell organelles and other structures resulting in damage to the plasma membrane and other structures. The mitochondria are the major source for the ROS. The mitochondria produces most of the body’s required adenosine triphosphate through the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation is the main source for ROS.
This results is decrease in Nitric oxide which might leads to increase in the tissue angiotensin converting enzyme, local mediators.
These might result in increase in the secreation of endothelin, platelet aggregation factor, cytokines, proteolysis and inflammation.
As a result vasoconstriction, thrombosis, inflammation and rupture of plaque occurs .