antigen detection methods (DIF; enzyme immunoassay, EIA);
nucleic acid detection methods: detection of C. trachomatis– specific nucleic acid sequences
rapid, or point of care (POC) tests
Ideally, samples should be collected under the following conditions:
antibiotic treatment should not have been provided during the previous 48–72 h
if possible,women should not be sampled during menstruation
in men and women, urethral and urine samples should be taken at least 2 h after urination. Sampling devices
sterile cotton/dacron swabs
sterile special brushe
sterile cotton swab for removal of discharge
sterile container for urine
Culture test for chlamydia:
A sample of your urine is analyzed in the laboratory for the presence of this infection.
A cervix discharge is collected and it is sent to the laboratory for further infection.
A PAP test is done to check for chlamydial infection in which the cells are removed from the infected area.
The physician palpate the uterus, vagina, ovaries and rectum to check for any possible findings.
Cervical smear test:
The cervical smear looks for abnormal changes in the cells of the cervix. Without treatment, some abnormal cells can eventually develop into cancer.
An enzyme immunoassay technique based on the direct detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in urethral or cervical swabs was used for the rapid diagnosis of chlamydial genital infection.
Nucleic acid amplification test:
The preferred method for chlamydia testing is the nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) that detects the genetic material (DNA) of Chlamydia trachomatis. It is generally more sensitive and specific than other chlamydia tests and can be performed on a vaginal swab on women or urine from both men and women, which eliminates the need for a pelvic exam in women. A best example of NAAT test is Polymease Chain Reaction.
Conjunctiva: removal of mucus and exudate. Use a swab and firm pressure to scrape away epithelial cells from upper and lower lids
Serological Diagnostic Tests
The serological diagnosis of brucellosis commonly relies on the confirmation of the rising titters of Brucella-specific antibodies. This is the indirect proof of infection. Serological assays are used for the primary diagnosis of infection, as well as treatment follow-up (. Immunoglobulin (Ig) M isotype antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella spp. are the first immunoglobulins emerge after infection and are the predominant antibodies during the acute phase of the disease. The presence of specific IgM is considered suggestive of acute or recent infection.
Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay:
It utilizes the molecular rotation and then detecting the antigen antibody interaction without the medium of separation. This test finds out the antigen antibody interaction