diease

Chronic Pain


OVERVIEW OF Chronic Pain :

Chronic pain refers to the pain which is present for prolonged duration of time.


CAUSES :

Muscle strains

Head aches such as Migraine

 Muscle Contusion

Myofascial Pain Syndrome

 Back pain

Pyomyositis

Fibromyalgia

Cancer

arthritis

Possible causes of body aches include:

Localized pain:

Localized pain refers to the pain that is concerned to the focal area or centered area that is significant to one muscle or group of muscle.

Muscle strains:

 this is more common among the athelets and sport persons orelse in an individual who push the hand backwards suddenly. It often causes sharp, tearing pain resulting accompanied by swelling or bruising.

Muscle Cramp or Spasms

A muscle cramps occurs when a muscle is not under your control. The best example of this type of spasms includes charley horse in which the calf muscle gets squeezed and causes severe pain but if the cramp gets reduced it might results in relief of the symptoms.

It's unclear what exactly causes muscles to cramp, but experts suspect a multitude of triggers, such as:

  • Improper stretching
  • Muscle fatigue
  • Exercising in extreme heat
  • Dehydration
  • Depletion of salt and electrolytes

Muscle cramps may also occur with various underlying diseases, including cirrhosis and peripheral heart diseases.

 Muscle Contusion

A muscle contusion may occur as a result of direct blow to the muscle. This includes falling from high level or getting injured during sports. This direct blow crushes the muscle fibers and connective tissue surrounding them. Sometimes it might result in discolouration of the skin surface and swollen of muscle fibers might occurs. The person might suffer from stiffness and difficulty of the movements in the affected area and also resulting in haematoma formation.

Cancer:

Cancer pain are the worst pain which lasts for months.

Migraine:

Migraine occurs due to the vasodilatation in the cranial vessels. The migraine pain are chronic pain which lasts longer.

 Myofascial Pain Syndrome :

  It occurs as a result of dysfunction or damage to the trigger points in the muscles. The trigger points are sensitized as tiny knots around the muscle and this knots are nothing but the thickest bands present in the muscle area. These trigger points may feel tender to touch and the tenderness also radiates to the other areas.

A common location for trigger points is in your upper trapezius muscle (situated at the back of your neck above each shoulder).  These trapezius trigger points might causes deep pain in those areas and also results in severe pain.

 Compartment Syndrome

It is an uncommon condition that develops a pressure develops within the group of muscle. There are two types of compartment syndrome:

Acute compartment syndrome: Muscle pain develops at instant which is  extreme, constant, and often described as a deep ache or burn. Neurological symptoms such as numbness and tingling occurs in this situation.

Chronic compartment syndrome: these  type of muscle pain occurs gradually after the exercises. The classic case is an athelete who tends to feel sqeezing and cramoing type of pain the lower back region of the leg. The pain might subside within 30 minutes after the exposure.

Pyomyositis

Pyomyositis is a rare, pus-containing infection of muscle (usually from staphylococcus aureus) that causes cramping muscle pain within a single muscle group, most commonly the thigh, calf, or buttock muscles.

As an infection prolongs a fever often develops, and the muscle becomes exquisitely tender and swollen. At this time, an abscess (a collection of pus) may be visible within the muscle.

If not treated, the infection can spread to other organs, like the heart, lungs, and brain.

 

Fibromyalgia:

 Pain, muscle stiffness ,fatigue are all the symptoms of myalgia

Infections and Viruses:

The flu, and other bacteria and other viruses can cause myalgia.

 When infection occurs , the white blood cell count tends to fight rapidly

This results in inflammation and causes body aches.

Conditions that can lead to fluid retention include:

  • thyroid problems, especially an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism)
  • congestive heart failure 
  • cirrhosis of the liver
  • severe malnutrition
  • chronic kidney disease and nephrotic syndrome
  • venous insufficiency
  • problems with lymphatic drainage

Pneumonia:

Pneumonia results in loss of oxygen to the red blood cells. This results in loss of nutritive function to the body and results in body aches and chronic  pain.

Chronic fatigue syndrome:

In a similar way to a person who does not get enough sleep, someone with chronic fatigue syndrome may experience trusted source muscular aches in addition to insomnia, exhaustion, and weakness.

ARTHRITIS:

Arthritis is caused to the inflammation of the joints.The body’s own immune system tends to  attacks the own healthy cells. It also results in dysfunction of the cells that lining the joints and causing inflammation resulting in body aches.

Autoimmune disorders:

Various autoimmune disorders can cause body aches. These include Lupus, Myositis and multiple sclerosis.

In multiple sclerosis the CNS cells are damaged resulting in injury to the nerve cells resulting in inflammation and dysregulation of the cells resulting in chronic pian.


COMMON CLINICAL SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS :

Intolerable pain

Muscle stiffness

Faigue

Muscle cramps

Tiredness 

Feeling of weightedness in the hands 

Soreness and inflammations

Anxiety

Inflammatory bowel disease


DIAGNOSTIC :

  • Blood tests. They can show if your body has an infection or another condition not related to cancer that can cause muscle aches.
  • Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan. Makes a 3-dimensional image of the inside of the body.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Uses magnetic fields to create detailed images of the body.
  • Bone scan. Sometimes it is hard to distinguish between bone pain and muscle pain. If the doctor suspects bone-related issues, a bone scan may be done.


TREATMENT AND PROGNOSIS :

Medication. These medications may treat muscle aches or reduce the pain:

  • Pain relievers:
    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), such as ibuprofen (Motrin) and naproxen (Naprosyn)
    • Acetaminophen, such as Tylenol
  • Muscle relaxants
  • Corticosteroids, which reduce swelling and inflammation
  • Antibiotics to treat infection
  • Antidepressants for depression
  • Antipsychotics such as olanzepine
  • Intervention pain management may be appropriate, including techniques such as trigger pont injectios, neurolytic blocks.

Self-care and support methods. Below are methods that may help you better manage muscle aches. Some of these practices you can do on your own. Others require you to work with a licensed or certified specialist. Talk with your health care team before trying these methods.

  • Massage. A massage therapist who has experience working with people with cancer can do a gentle therapeutic massage that may help ease muscle pain. You or your caregiver can also do simple massage techniques at home.
  • Physical therapy. A physical therapist can treat muscle problems and teach you how to relieve pain using simple exercises or devices.
  • Exercise. Gentle exercise, along with stretching and strengthening may help loosen muscles and increase blood flow to them.
  • Heat and cold. Hot or cold compresses, heating pads, or ice packs may help decrease discomfort from muscle aches.
  • Relaxation techniques. Gentle breathing or meditation exercises may enhance relaxation and reduce muscle tension, which may help decrease muscle aches.


PREVENTION :

Get treatment when the pain is acute.

Practising exercises

Warm up during exercise

Avoid lifting heavy objects

Always be hydrated

Have healthy food diet.


Medicines used in the Treatment :

  • ibuprofen (Motrin)
  • and naproxen (Naprosyn)
  • Acetaminophen, such as Tylenol
  • olanzepine