This is the simplest way to detect C.difficile is through a stool test. The stool is collected in a sterile container and it is given to the pathologist for examination.
A blood reveals the highest levels of white blood cells, a sign of infection. Very high levels can signify a more severe clostridium difficile infection in which the person might have the watery diaarhoea, intense stomach cramps and dehydration.
Colonoscopy or Sigmoidoscopy:
If you have severe symptoms of C. difficile, a physician may examine the colon using a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. In both procedures, a thin, flexible tube with a light on the end is inserted through the rectum, allowing a doctor to view the colon.
A colonoscopy enables a doctor to examine the entire colon and rectum, whereas a sigmoidoscopy allows him or her to view only the rectum and the lower part of the colon.
These tests can indicate whether inflammation is present, indicating a C. difficile infection. They also allow a doctor to take tissue samples, if necessary, to further test for infection.
A CT scan uses X-rays and a computer to create three-dimensional, cross-sectional images of the body. If a doctor suspects you have a complication of C. difficile infection, such as a hole in the intestines, he or she may order a CT scan. Your doctor may give you a contrast agent before the scan to enhance the images. It can be taken by mouth or as an injection into a vein.
Polymerase Chain Reaction:
This can detect the presence of C.difficile toxin B gene in a stool sample and it is highly sensitive and highly accurate test.
It uses a glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) test in conjunction with an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test. GDH is a very sensitive assay and can be accurately rule out the presence of clostridium difficile.
The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test is faster than the other test and it is the sensitive test. This test has many infections and has a higher rate of falsely normal results.
Cell cytotoxicity assay:
A cytotoxicity view for the effects of the clostridium difficile toxin on human cells grown in a culture. This type of test is very much sensitive. It requies 24-48 hours for the test results to arrive.