The patient is sedated and physician looks for an abnormality in the intestine with a computer aided device.
It is the removal of a small amppount of tissue for examination under the microscope. A biopsy is the confirmatory test for colonal cancer or colonal cancer.
Biomarketing testing of the tumour:
The colonal cancer should be tested for problems in mismatch repair proteins called mismatch repair defect.
Patient with the colonal cancer may tends to bleed through rectum. This results in the aneamia in patients. Complete blood count might reveal whether the bleeding is occurring or not.
Other levels of protein such as the carcinoembryonic antigen which detects if the cancer has spread to other regions or not.
Fecal immunochemical test:(FIT0
This test reveals if the blood is present in the stool or not
Guaiac based feacl occult blood test(gFOBT):
It is similar to the FIT but it reveals the occult blood in stool.
Fecal DNA test:
It tests the genetic mutations and presence of cancer cells in the stool.
A CT scan takes three dimensional pictures of the abnormal tissues from different angles.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging:
A MRI scan uses the combination of the magnetic and radiowave frequency to view the abnormal tissues.
An dye is injected in the vein or the patient is asked to swallow the dye and the results are observed.
A sound waves to create the picture of the internal organs to find out if the cancer is spread or not.
Chest x ray:
The chest x ray might reveals whether the cancer has spread to the lungs or not
Positron emission tomography (PET) or PET-CT scan.:
A PET scan is a way to create pictures of organs and tissues inside the body. A small amount of a radioactive sugar substance is injected into the patient’s body. This sugar substance is taken up by cells that use the most energy. Because cancer tends to use energy actively, it absorbs more of the radioactive substance. However, the amount of radiation in the substance is too low to be harmful. A scanner then detects this substance to produce images of the inside of the body.
- Stage 0:
- The cancer is not spread but has potential development of the cancer in the future which is termed as carcinoma insitu.
- Stage 1:
- The cancer cells are consider to the localized area. This is also called the early stage cancer
- Stage 2 and Stage 3:
- It indicates that the cancer cell has spread to the nearby lymphnodes or tissues.
- Type 4 :
- It indicates that the cancer has spread to other parts of the body and also it easily gets metastasis. This is also called an advanced type of cancer.
Another common staging tool is the TNM system, which stands for Tumor, Node, Metastasis. When a patient’s cancer is staged with TNM, a number will follow each letter. This number signifies the extent of the disease in each category. According to the National Cancer Institute and MD Anderson experts, the standard TNM system uses the following rules:
Primary tumor (T)
- TX: Main tumor cannot be measured.
- T0: Main tumor cannot be found.
- T(is), or T in situ: The tumor is still within the confines of the normal glands and cannot metastasize.
- T1, T2, T3, T4: Refers to the size and/or extent of the main tumor. The higher the number after the T, the larger the tumor or the more it has grown into nearby tissues. T's may be further divided to provide more detail, such as T3a and T3b.
Regional lymph nodes (N)
Lymphatic fluid transports immune system cells throughout the body. Lymph nodes are small bean-shaped structures that help move this fluid. Cancer often first spreads to and through nearby lymph nodes.
- NX: Cancer in nearby lymph nodes cannot be measured.
- N0: There is no cancer in nearby lymph nodes.
- N1, N2, N3: Refers to the number and location of lymph nodes that contain cancer. The higher the number after the N, the more lymph nodes that contain cancer.
Distant metastasis (M)
Metastasis is the spread of cancer to other parts of the body.
- MX: Metastasis cannot be measured.
- M0: Cancer has not spread to other parts of the body.
- M1: Cancer has spread to other parts of the body.