Clinical signs & symptoms
Poor muscle tone
Flat nasal bridge
Single crease of palm
Protruding tongue due to small sized chain
Obstructive sleep apnoea
The other symptoms include:
Many milestone development are getting disturbed. For example an ability to crawl which is occurring around 5 months might takes 8 months to develop.
And walking at 14 months of age is the normal. But the child with downs syndrome tends to walk at 21 months.
Most of the individuals show the IQ level- 50 to 69 which is mild
Moderate- 35 to 50
Intellectual disability – 20-35
In mosaic down syndrome the IQ score is 10-30%.
Brushfield ( small white or grayish spots on the outer part of the iris)spots appear. Between 20-50 % of the population has Strabismus in which there in un coordination of two eye balls. Keratoconus which is termed as thin cone shaped cornea and glaucoma increase in the eye pressure are also more common.
Otitis median with effusion is seen in 50-70 and chronic ear infections occurs in 40-60% of the cases.
Poor eustachian tube function.
Excessive ear wax can also cause hearing loss due to obstruction of the outer ear canal.
The congenital heart disease is 40%. Of those 80% has an atrioventricular septal defect or ventricular septl defect. Mitral valve prolapse is also common as age progresses.
Tetralogy of Fallot, Patent ductus arteriosus and hardening of the arteries is also common.
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia is increased ehile the risk of other non blood cancer is decreased.
Leukaemia is more common among the down’s syndrome patients.
Thyroid gland problems occur in 20-50% of the individuals with the down’s syndrome. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is more common. Thyroid functions can be due to poorly or improper functioning of the thyroid gland.
Constipation is common among the people with the downs syndrome. One fatal condition called Hirschsprung’s disease occurs in 2-15% of the patient which is due to the lack of nerve cells controlling the colon.
People with Down syndrome tend to be more susceptible to gingivitis as well as early, severe periodontal disease, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and early tooth loss, especially in the lower front teeth.
People with Down syndrome also tend to have a more alkaline saliva resulting in a greater resistance to tooth decay despite decreased quantities of saliva,less effective oral hygiene habits, and higher plaque indexes.
Higher rates of tooth wear and bruxism are also common. Other common oral manifestations of Down syndrome include enlarged hypotonic tongue, crusted and hypotonic lips, mouth breathing narrow palate with crowded teeth, class III malocclusion with an underdeveloped maxilla and posterior crossbite, delayed exfoliation of baby teeth and delayed eruption of adult teeth, shorter roots on teeth, and often missing and malformed (usually smaller) teeth. Less common manifestations include cleft lip and palate and enamel hypocalcification. (20% prevalence).
Taurodontism an elongation of the pulp chamber, has a high prevalence in people with DS.
Males shows sterility problems when compared to females. Menopause tends to occurs at an earlier age. The sperm development is interfered in Down’s syndrome.