The common cause for the dysphagia are as follows:
It refers to the sensation of food stcking or getting hung up in the base of your throat or in the chest after we have started to swallow. Some of the causes of esophageal dysphagia include:
When lower esophageal muscle ( sphincter) doesn’t relax properly to let food enter the stomach, it may cause you to bring food back up into your throat. Muscles in the wall of the esophagus may be weak leading to worsening of the condition over time.
Multiple high pressure, poorly coordinated contractions of the esophagus that takes place usually after the swallow. Diffuse spasm affects the involuntary muscles in the walls of the lower esophagus.
A narrowed esophagus that is also called as stricture can trap large pieces of food. Timours or scar tissue often caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease can cause narrowing.
Esophageal tumors: Difficulty swallowing tends to get progressively worse when esophageal tumors are present.
Foreign bodies: Sometimes food or another object can partially block your throat or esophagus. Older adults with dentures and people who have difficulty chewing their food may be more likely to have a piece of food become lodged in the throat or esophagus.
A thin area of narrowing in the lower esophagus that can intermittently cause difficulty in swallowing the solid foods.
Damage to the esophageal tissues from the stomach acid backing up into your esophagus can lead to spasm or scarring and narrowing of the lower esophagus.
This condition, which may be related to a food allergy, is caused by an overpopulation of cells called eosinophils in the esophagus.
Development of scar-like tissue, causing stiffening and hardening of tissues, can weaken your lower esophageal sphincter, allowing acid to back up into your esophagus and cause frequent heartburn.
This cancer treatment can lead to inflammation and scarring of the esophagus
The conditions that weaken the throat muscles making it very difficult to move the food from the mouth to the throat and then to the esophagus when the swallowing mechanism is started. The person might get chole, gag, or cough when they try to swallow or have the sensation of food or fluids going down the windpipe that is termes as trachea or up the nose. This might lead to pneumonia.
Causes of oropharyngeal dysphagia include:
Certain disorders — such as multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy and Parkinson's disease — can cause dysphagia.
Sudden neurological damage, such as from a stroke or brain or spinal cord injury, can affect the ability to swallow.
Pharyngoesophageal diverticulum (Zenker's diverticulum):
A small pouch that forms and collects food particles in the throat, often just above the esophagus, leads to difficulty in swallowing, gurgling sounds, bad breath, and repeated throat clearing or coughing.
Certain cancers and some cancer treatments, such as radiation, can cause difficulty swallowing.
The following are the risk factors:
Due to natural aging and normal wear and tear of the oesophagus and a person in greater risk of certain conditions such as stroke, parkinson’s disease and the older adults are at the higher risk of developing swallowing difficulties. But dysphagia is not considered as a normal sign of aging.
Certain health conditions:
People with certain neurological abnormalities tends to develop the swallowing difficulties.
Complications of dysphagia might result in Aspiration pneumonia, choking and malnutrition