TREATMENT AND PROGNOSIS :
Nutritional iron deficiency is common in developing nations. An estimated two-thirds of children and of women of childbearing age in most developing nations are estimated to have iron deficiency without anemia; one-third of them have iron deficiency with anemia. Iron deficiency due to inadequate dietary iron intake is rare in men and postmenopausal women. The diagnosis of iron deficiency mandates a search for potential sources of blood loss, such as gastrointestinal bleeding from ulcers or colon cancer.
Mild to moderate iron-deficiency anemia is treated can be treated by intake of oral supplements with ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, or ferrous gluconate. Routine intake of Iron supplement is indicated in women with child bearing age and also in pregnant women.Large amount of intake of iron might results in darkening of the faecal matter. Vitamin C promotes the absorption of an iron hence while taking the iron supplements one can take vitamin c as an adjuvant.If the iron deficiency iron deficiency anaemia occurs in chronic kidney disease recombinant erythropoietin is recommended.
Parenteral Iron is given when iron is not taken by the oral route and the patient feel difficulty in taking iron supplemets orally.It is very much useful in patients with postpartum haemorrhage,longtime kidney diseases and inflammamtory bowel syndrome. The body is capable of absorbing 6mg of iron daily from the gastrointestinal tract. In chroic cases erythropeitin can be used as the supplements to restore the Iron.
Blood transfusion is mainly indicated in the patients who are symptomatic and the haemoglobin level is below 6-8gm/dl.In cardiac patients who are actively bleeding and the Hb level is below 8 should undrgo blood transfusion.
In cancer patients before the transfusion of the blood other strategies should be checked in them.if anyoter alternatives is possible it can be opted in them.
The main aim of Erythropoiesis stimulating agents is to minimize the transfusion reactions and it is not recommended in peoples with mild to moderate symptoms.It is contraindicated in people with chronic kidney disease unless their Hb level is maintained at less than 10. They should be used in adjunct to the oral iron.
Treatment of exceptional blood loss (anemia) is recognized as an indication for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) The use of HBO is indicated when oxyhen delivery to tissue is not sufficient in patients who cannot be given blood transeasons. HBO may be used for medical reasons when threat of blood product incompatibility or concern for transmissible disease are factors. The beliefs of some religions (ex: Jehova's witnesses
) may require they use the HBO method.
An estimated 30% of adults who require non-cardiac surgery have anemia. In order to determine an appropriate pre-operative treatment, it is suggested that the cause of anemia be first determined. There is moderate level medical evidence that supports a combination of iron supplementation and erythropoietin treatment to help reduce the requirement for red blood cell transfusions after surgery in those who have pre-operative anemia.
Iron deficiency iron deficiency anaemia due to bone marrow dysfunction is treated by:Medication,chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant.