The doctor might check for the signs and symptoms that correlate the lung cancer.
The chest x ray predicts any abnormal area in the lungs
It reveals the slice of the lung. It uses both the combination of x ray and computer aided device.
It helps to analyse the size, shape and position of any lung tumour and also it helps in the detection of enlarged lymph nodes.
It also looks for any masses in the adrenal gland, liver, brain and other organs.
CT guided needle Biopsy:
CT scan might be used to guide a biopsy needle into this area to get the tissue for lung cancer.
It uses the soft tissue image of the organ. It uses the both the magnet and radiowaves.
It often reveals whether the cancer cells has spread to the brain or spinal cord.
Positron emmisison tomography:(PET)
A radioactive form of sugar in injected into the blood and the positron are emitted to reveal the cancer site.
They can detect if the cancer cell has spread anywhere.
A low level radioactive material is injected into the blood and collects mainly in abnormal areas of blood.
Sputum(mucus cough up from the lungs) is checked. The best way to obtain the sputum is from early morning sample. This test helps to find out the cancer in the major airways of lungs such as squamous cell lung carcinoma.
A needle is inserted between the ribs and the sample from pleural fluid is taken.
Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy:
A needle is used to aspirate small fragments of tissues. It is used for cancer in the lymph node in the lungs.
Transtracheal or transbrochial FNA:
It is done by passing the needle through the walls of the trachea or bronchi during bronchoscopy or endobronchial ultrasound.
Transthoracic needle biopsy:
It is used to find out if the tumour is present outside the tumour.
It a procedure that uses a lighted tube inserted behind the sternum (breast bone) and in front of the windpipe to look at and take tissue samples from the lymph nodes along the windpipe and the major bronchial tube areas. If some lymph nodes can’t be reached by mediastinoscopy, a mediastinotomy may be done so the surgeon can directly remove the biopsy sample. For this procedure, a slightly larger incision (usually about 2 inches long) between the left second and third ribs next to the breast bone is needed.
Bronchoscope is a thin lighted instrument used to view the lungs. The physician passes the tube through the trachea then the bronchus and alveoli are viewed clearly.