It is the removal of a small amount of tissue for examination under the microscope. A biopsy is the confirmatory test for stomach cancer.
Fine needle aspiration:
In this type of biopsy the physician moves the fine needle through the abdomen and take the tissue needed for the diagnosis.
In this type of biopsy, the physician uses an endoscope an hollow tube . light emitting structure to down the stomach and tissues are obtained.
Molecular diagnosis of the tumour:
Specific genes, proteins and other unique genes can be identifies in this test.
PD-L1 and high microsatellite instability which is called as mismatch repair defect.
Human epidermal growth factor is secreated in larger amount in this disease. And these things should be noted carefully.
Patient with the stomach cancer tends to show low levels of platelets, white blood cells, red blood cells. This results in the aneamia in patients. Complete blood count might reveal whether the bleeding is occurring or not.
A CT scan takes three dimensional pictures of the abnormal tissues from different angles.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging:
A MRI scan uses the combination of the magnetic and radiowave frequency to view the abnormal tissues.
An dye is injected in the vein or the patient is asked to swallow the dye and the results are observed.
A sound waves to create the picture of the internal organs to find out if the cancer is spread or not.
Abdominal ultrasound: with the patient symptoms it can be used to view the pancreas. But it cannot reveal the spread of pancreas.
Endoscopic ultrasound: in this method the doctor uses an ultrasound probe, and with the guidance of endoscope it is passed in to the small intestine and then into the pancreas to view the structures.
The patient is asked to swallow the liquid Barium. Barium gets deposited in the lining of the stomach ,
esophagus and small intestine.
If X rays are taken at this time it might show some blockages in the stomach and other areas clearly.
Positron emission tomography (PET) or PET-CT scan:
A PET scan is a way to create pictures of organs and tissues inside the body. A small amount of a radioactive sugar substance is injected into the patient’s body. This sugar substance is taken up by cells that use the most energy. Because cancer tends to use energy actively, it absorbs more of the radioactive substance. However, the amount of radiation in the substance is too low to be harmful. A scanner then detects this substance to produce images of the inside of the body. With the help of the PET scan one can be able to find out the stage of cancer.
Liver function test:
The bilirubin levels and the level of other digestive enzymes and liver enzymes such as Alanine transaminase, Aspartate transaminase and Alkaline phosphatase should be checked.
Liver function test is useful when Liver acts as a secondary site.
- CA 19-9
- Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
- Stage 0:
- The cancer is not spread but has potential development of the cancer in the future which is termed as carcinoma insitu.
- Stage 1:
- The cancer cells are consider to the localized area. This is also called the early stage cancer
- Stage 2 and Stage 3:
- It indicates that the cancer cell has spread to the nearby lymphnodes or tissues.
- Stage 4:
- It indicates that the cancer has spread to distant organs.