The physician might look for swelling, tenderness or hardening. He might also look for the any evidence of abnormal lymph nodes which may indicate the spread of cancer spread. The legs are also checked for any swelling.
It uses sound waves to create the picture of the internal organs. The sound waves produces by the ultrasound bounce off tissue in the scrotum. The echoes of the sound waves [roduces a series of images called the sonogram. The sonogram shows up the site, location and shape of the tumour.
Blood tests/Tumour marker:
Tumour markers are substances made by a cancer cells that are found at abnomally high levels in the blood of some people with cancer. The following are the tumour markers:
- The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level is often, but not everytime is elevated in people with non-seminoma. AFP is not made by seminomas, so an increased level of AFP is a sign that the tumor is not a pure seminoma.
- Beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) is often, but not always, elevated in people with seminoma or non-seminoma. However, beta-HCG levels above 1,000 IU/L generally indicate that the cancer is a non-seminoma and not a seminoma.
Elevated levels of these tumor markers may indicate testicular cancer or another type of cancer. However, it is possible to have testicular cancer and have normal tumor marker levels. It is also possible to have elevated levels of these markers without having cancer.
Other tumour marker:
A CT scan takes three dimensional pictures of the abnormal tissues from different angles.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging:
A MRI scan uses the combination of the magnetic and radiowave frequency to view the abnormal tissues.
An dye is injected in the vein or the patient is asked to swallow the dye and the results are observed.
Positron emission tomography (PET) or PET-CT scan:
A PET scan is a way to create pictures of organs and tissues inside the body. A small amount of a radioactive sugar substance is injected into the patient’s body. This sugar substance is taken up by cells that use the most energy. Because cancer tends to use energy actively, it absorbs more of the radioactive substance. However, the amount of radiation in the substance is too low to be harmful. A scanner then detects this substance to produce images of the inside of the body.
Orchiectomy for pathology test:
During this surgery the entire testicle is removed through the incision in the groin. Then the pathologist will examine for very thin slices of tissue from the testicle to look under microscope.
The doctor then look for the testis for the presence of cancer cells.